William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “‘Muerto por Unos Desconocidos (Killed by people Unknown)’:…
… Mob Violence against African Americans and Mexican Americans, ” in Beyond monochrome: Race, Ethnicity, and Gender within the U.S. Southern and Southwest, ed. Stephanie Cole and Allison Parker (College facility, 2004), 35–74; William D. Carrigan and Clive Webb, “A Dangerous Experiment: The Lynching of Rafael Benavides, ” New Mexico Historical Review, 80 (summer time 2005), 265–92. For the Texas example, see Nicholas Villaneuva Jr., “‘Sincerely Yours for Dignified Manhood’: Lynching, Violence, and United states Manhood during the first many years of the Mexican Revolution, 1910–1914, ” Journal of this western, 49 (wintertime 2010), 41–48. On mob physical violence against “racial other people” into the West, see, for instance, Pfeifer, harsh Justice, 86–88; Pfeifer, Roots of Rough Justice, 46–50; and Scott Zesch, The Chinatown War: Chinese Los Angeles and also the Massacre of 1871 (ny, 2012). Another ethnic group perceived as racially different in the postbellum South, see Clive Webb, “The Lynching of Sicilian Immigrants in the American South, 1886–1910, ” American Nineteenth Century History, 3 (Spring 2002), 45–76 on the lynching of 29 sicilians. In the lynching of Sicilians in Colorado, see Stephen J. Leonard, Lynching in Colorado, 1859–1919 (Boulder, 2002), 135–42.
Christopher Waldrep, the numerous Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in the us (nyc, 2002); Christopher Waldrep, ed., Lynching in the usa: a brief history in papers (ny, 2006); Christopher Waldrep, African People in america Confront Lynching: methods of Resistance through the Civil War towards the Civil Rights period (Lanham, 2008); William D. Carrigan and Christopher Waldrep, eds., Swift to Wrath: Lynching in Global Historical attitude (Charlottesville, 2013). Jonathan Markowitz, Legacies of Lynching: Racial Violence and Memory (Minneapolis, 2004), xxxi. On lynching within the context of Jim Crow tradition, see Grace Elizabeth Hale, Making Whiteness: The customs of Segregation when you look at the South, 1890–1940 (ny, 1998), 199–238. For analyses of literary and visual representations of lynching through the belated nineteenth through the mid-twentieth hundreds of years, see Jacqueline Goldsby, the Spectacular Secret: Lynching in American lifestyle and Literature (Chicago, 2006); and Sandy Alexandre, The qualities of Violence: Claims to Ownership in Representations of Lynching (Jackson, 2012). For narratives of southern and vigilantism that is western lynching, see Lisa Arellano, Vigilantes and Lynch Mobs: Narratives of Community and Nation (Philadelphia, 2012). For lynching into the context associated with Protestant tradition regarding the postbellum American South, see Donald G. Mathews, “The Southern Rite of Human Sacrifice: Lynching within the American South, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 62 (Winter–Spring 2008), 27–70. Amy Louise Wood, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Violence that is racial in, 1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, 2009), 14. Fury, https://www.camsloveaholics.com/female/18to19 dir. Fritz Lang ( mgm, 1936); The Ox-Bow Incident, dir. William Wellman (Twentieth Century Fox, 1943). On lynching into the people tradition of new york’s reduced Piedmont, see Bruce E. Baker, “North Carolina Lynching Ballads, ” in less than Sentence of Death, ed. Brundage, 219–46. On lynching in belated nineteenth- and early twentieth-century black colored movie theater, see Koritha Mitchell, coping with Lynching: African American Lynching has, Efficiency, and Citizenship, 1890–1930 (Urbana, 2012). Sherrilyn A. Ifill, From the Courthouse Lawn: Confronting the Legacy of Lynching in the Twenty-First Century (Boston, 2007). For a residential area research that explored the legacy that is lengthy of inspired lynchings in Marion, Indiana, in 1931, see James H. Madison, Lynching into the Heartland: Race and Memory in the us (ny, 2001). For a summary of lynching in US culture, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy, American Lynching ( brand New Haven, 2012). The end of American Lynching (New Brunswick, 2012) for the argument that an end-of-lynching discourse continues to shape and distort discussion of American mob violence, see Ashraf H. A. Rushdy.
Crystal Feimster, Southern Horrors: Females therefore the Politics of Rape and Lynching (Cambridge, Mass., 2009). On African women that are american relationship to lynching, see Evelyn M. Simien, ed., Gender and Lynching: The Politics of Memory (ny, 2011). For instance studies of lynchings of African US ladies in Georgia, Oklahoma, and sc, see Julie Buckner Armstrong, Mary Turner therefore the Memory of Lynching (Athens, Ga., 2011); and Maria DeLongoria, “‘Stranger Fruit’: The Lynching of Ebony Women, The Cases of Rosa Jefferson and Marie Scott” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Missouri–Columbia, 2006). For a journalistic remedy for the lynching of two African US partners in Walton County, Georgia, in 1946, see Laura Wexler, Fire in a Canebrake: the final Mass Lynching in the us (nyc, 2003). From the lynching of females and kids within the West, see Helen McLure, “‘I Suppose you would imagine Strange the Murder of females and Children’: The American customs of Collective Violence, 1675–1930” (Ph.D. Diss., Southern Methodist University, 2009). For a summary of feminine lynching victims, see Kerry Segrave, Lynchings of females in the usa: The cases that are recorded 1851–1946 (Jefferson, 2010). Claude A. Clegg III, difficult Ground: an account of Murder, Lynching, and Reckoning into the brand brand New Southern (Urbana, 2010); Terrence Finnegan, A Deed So Accursed: Lynching in Mississippi and South Carolina, 1881–1940 (Charlottesville, 2013). On Mississippi’s respected record of racial mob physical violence, see Julius E. Thompson, Lynchings in Mississippi: a past history, 1865–1965 (Jefferson, 2007). This Mob Will Surely Take My Life: Lynching in the Carolinas, 1871–1947 (London, 2008); and J. Timothy Cole, The Forest City Lynching of 1900: Populism, Racism, and White Supremacy in Rutherford County, North Carolina (Jefferson, 2003) on lynching in the Carolinas, see Bruce E. Baker.
Kidada E. Williams, They Left Great markings on me personally: African US Testimonies of Racial Violence from Emancipation to World War I ( brand New York, 2012). On African American reactions to mob physical physical physical violence, see Karlos Hill, “Resisting Lynching: Ebony Grassroots Responses to Lynching when you look at the Mississippi and Arkansas Deltas, 1882–1938” (Ph.D. Diss., University of Illinois, 2009).
Present scholarship, particularly that centered on civil legal rights activism, has started to explore African US reactions to racial terror during the level that is local.
On black colored reactions to terror that is racial fin-de-siecle Florida as well as in 1960s and 1970s Alabama and Mississippi, respectively, see Paul Ortiz, Emancipation Betrayed: The Hidden reputation for Ebony Organizing and White Violence in Florida from Reconstruction into the Bloody Election of 1920 (Berkeley, 2006); Hasan Kwame Jeffries, Bloody Lowndes: Civil Rights and Ebony energy in Alabama’s Ebony Belt (ny, 2010); and Akinyele Omowale Umoja, We Will Shoot Back: Armed Resistance into the Mississippi Freedom Movement (nyc, 2013). Ifill, In The Courthouse Lawn, xix–xx. When it comes to Senate apology, see Congressional Record, 109 Cong., 1 sess., June 13, 2005, p. S6364–88. For news protection regarding the U.S. Senate apology see, as an example, Wendy Koch, “U.S. Senate Moves to Apologize for Injustice, ” usa Today, June 13, 2005; and Martin C. Evans, “An Apology for Old as a type of Terror: Senate Expects to Vote Tomorrow on Resolution regarding Its Failure to aid End Practice of Lynching, ” Newsday, June 12, 2005, p. A34. On efforts to memorialize lynchings in Duluth, Minnesota, in 1920 as well as in cost, Utah, in 1925, respectively, see Dora Apel, “Memorialization as well as its Discontents: America’s First Lynching Memorial, ” Mississippi Quarterly, 61 (Winter–Spring 2008); and Kimberley Mangun and Larry R. Gerlach, “Making Utah History: Press Coverage associated with the Robert Marshall Lynching, June 1925, ” in Lynching beyond Dixie, ed. Pfeifer, 143–47. The chains: In Montgomery, Ala., a Move to Remember Slavery Exactly Where It Happened, ” New York Times, Dec. 10, 2013, pp on an effort by Bryan Stevenson and the Equal Justice Initiative to erect memorials at lynching sites around the South, see Campbell Robertson, “Before the Battles and the protests. 17–18.